A Grand Opening

Ave, Sandum Citizens!

Pursuant to policies of Realism and advancement for our State, I declared at the Gregorian New Year in January that our State would seek reforms on citizenship. After months of contemplation, many hours of research, and much deliberation, I can report that that goal was dutifully kept by this Office. This new law is ground breaking for our State: for the first time in our Sandum history, we will have a law concerning the granting of citizenship that is meant to create an open and fair process for all applicants. For the first time, this law will lay out policies of advancement for our State that include the creation of a meritocratic bureaucracy and a system of taxation. And, for the first time since April 2010, our State will begin to make concrete claims and provinces for the construction of our State. As I began this announcement, this new law is to pursue realistic and pragmatic growth for our State, while ensuring our security and livelihood as it is.

For several months now, I have been conducting research concerning the various forms of citizenship in the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire. As well, to engage and advance the activity of our citizens, I began to do research on the meritocratic system of governance and bureaucracy of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire under the Cursus Honorum, the predecessor of our new Courso d’Honourae. Whilst this new Courso d’Honourae does not apply to cooperatives and, rather, only to the Central People’s Government, this Courso d’Honourae will begin to engage Sandum citizens in the hopes of increasing activity and benefits for both our State and our policies.

In the first section of this new law, citizenship is declared to be conducted in three manners. The first, full citizenship, is known as Civilo and guarantees all of the rights of the State. This civilo status is for the citizens of Sandus who reside within it and grants them full economic, political and traditional Sandum rights. Full citizenship is granted by birth, by marriage, or by a naturalisation period of one month as an auxiliary, or peregro, citizen. The second, partial citizenship, is known as Socilivo and guarantees all rights of the State except the right to stand for election and to vote in Sandum elections. Socilivo citizens are citizens of an independent, sovereign state that is recognised to be close to Sandus and, as such, is granted socilivo status. Already there has been much interest in this new status, as it does not impede the sovereign affairs of foreign states, and our close ally of Renasia has shown interest in becoming a socilivo state. The third, auxiliary citizenship, is known as Peregro and guarantees only the basic rights of Sandus: the rights of life and the right to petition. This is justifiable, however, as peregrae citizens are either peregrae because they are applying for full citizenship and must wait a period of one month before becoming full citizens or because they have been granted that citizenship as a punishment for an offence or crime.

Second on the law, after citizenship, taxation and censuses was addressed. Though the law declares that taxation may levied and will be mandatory, it is also declares that the individual citizen can decide their mode of taxation when the census is being taken. For instance, the two broad categories include monetary donation to the State or a quota of work. As explained several times before the promulgation of the law, the Sôgmô stated that a citizen could decide a quota of rice from FreeRice.com to be accepted as a form of tax. Punishments, as well, can be handed down by new Courso d’Honourae positions, though the punishments are not excessive — for instance, the highest amount of a punishment is either reduction to peregro citizenship or to fulfil the quota or donation that was not granted to the State.

Next in the law is the brief section on provinces. As I declared before, it will be the first time since 2010 under the Democratic People’s Republic of Sandus that provinces will begin to be used once more. As well, the claims for the provinces will now be drawn out on a map, as well. Provinces are not representational electorates to the government. Rather, they are areas of bureaucratic division, as the Courso d’Honourae is based upon provinces. Each province will contain as many people as necessary to fulfil the purposes of the Courso d’Honourae. Citizens are allocated to the closest province and, during the quarterly census, the number of citizens is checked and the border can be redrawn.

Finally in the law is the new bureaucratic system based upon merit. Though this Courso d’Honourae does not apply to cooperatives, these offices are some that can be used by Sandum citizens to become more active in their government and State. The Courso d’Honourae is based upon the Roman Cursus Honorum and utilised many of the same magistrates and functions of the Cursus Honorum. The system begins with the Quaestrae, from the Roman Quaestor, and is meant to collect taxes, conduct censuses, and distribute messages to the citizens of a province.  Next, the Tribunae, from the Roman Tribune, supervises and oversees the Quaestrae, redresses petitions from citizens concerning provincial matters, and charges those who do not meet their taxation obligations. After the Tribunae come the Aedilae, from the Roman Aedile, which organises the offices of the provincial bureaucracy, motivates the citizens of a province, and assesses the welfare of the province. Next the Censrae, from the Roman Censor, oversees cooperatives and production in the province, pursues socialist policies within that province, and represents the province to the Office of the Sôgmô. Next comes the judicial manner of the Praetrae, from the Roman Praetor, who hear cases of civil and criminal charges, issues punishments, conducts investigations for those cases, and expressly serves as a judge. The highest office in the Courso is that of the Consulae, from the Roman Consul, which oversees all offices, reports to advises the Sôgmô, and represents the State in foreign capacities and Sandum policies in macronational affairs. And, in order to remain pragmatic and in line with our Realist policies, some members of the Courso may follow each of these roles if there are not enough citizens.

This law sets forth a precedent of realism and Sandum compassion found within our national philosophy. With the creation of taxation dedicated to community service along side work for our State, it will encourage Sandum citizens to become socially and politically active in the world around them for the benefit of both the State and of our world. These policies shall certainly develop for our state into a compassionate and socialist state as an example of pragmatism and realism. May this new law bring only benefit for our State, our policies and our world!

Work will now begin on the varies necessary forms, applications and paperwork to satisfy this new system of governance. Following this, we shall begin to draft a short new law that shall require cooperatives to form their own Courso de Travailo, or Courso d’Honourae, and shall state that all dual citizens are to be peregrae citizens unless they hail from socilivo states and allies. Work shall also be done in order to codify Sandum foreign policy under one law, which shall include the seasonal application of the September 27th foreign policy declaration during the Winter. It is our hope to make our State active again in foreign affairs beginning at the spring equinox on the 20th of March.

May we, the People of Sandus, and our State of Sandus continue to prosper and benefit all people!

— Sôgmô Sörgel.

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