All three Grand State Officers were in attendance.
The Party Secretary began with preparations for MicroCon 2019. He specified that he and the Sôgmô should extend outreach to fraternal peoples throughout the micronational world at the convention. This includes solidarity-building, cooperation, and mutual political causes. Then, he and the Sôgmô focused on discussing the proposal for a community associated with the Social System that will encourage solidarity and cooperation on key policy interests. Both then planned an agenda of meetings and common decision-making events.
The Facilitator followed by mentioning preliminary stages of proposal for key “Sandum Economic Principles,” including a basic monetary and economic policy for Sandus. Key issues revolved around how to value the persuma, the status of CivBanca as Sandus’s state bank, and CivBanca‘s role in the Commission for the Command Economy. She also mentioned ideas for revenue, including bonds, voluntary taxes, and the sale of state surplus.
Finally, the Sôgmô briefly mentioned two proposals: one for solidarity citizenship, a new citizenship status sine suffragio, and another for a basic litigation system in Sandus, divided into arbitration and formulary or actio legis systems.
The next meeting will take place on 29 E July 2019.
All three Grand State Officers were in attendance.
The Party Secretary began. He mentioned the need to restart the Commission for the Command Economy, and it was decided both to schedule a meeting in the coming month and also to issue a directive regarding the Commission’s membership. The need for a catalogue or registry of workers’ skills was also added to the docket, and a system for citizens to request items. Finally, the State of Sandus needs a monetary and fiscal policy, which will be discussed by the CCE in the future.
Next, the Facilitator mentioned the need to update certain pages on the Sandus.org portal, since some pages are outdated. The Sôgmô will also recreate a citizenship application form.
Finally, the Sôgmô discussed ongoing negotiation between Sandus, Überstadt, and Saint-Castin regarding the Social System and a potential new associated community. The idea for an associate membership in the Social System and an associated non-citizenship-sharing community was floated. Ideas for the community include a rotating presidency, committees on key points of interest and cooperation, and scheduled meetings. The need for a Social System secretary and commission was also mentioned, and also a potential memorandum of understanding on the ability of Sandus to enter into bilateral social agreements outside the Social System. Finally, það mentioned both proposals for solidarity citizenship, a proposed new citizenship status in Sandus, and the need for a Sandum litigation system.
The next meeting will take place on Monday 15 G July 2019.
The three Grand State Officers—the Sôgmô, the Party Secretary, and the Facilitator of the Council—have begun to hold weekly meetings over the phone to discuss major State business, in addition to the long-established State Officers’ chatroom. At the meetings, major Sandum policies are discussed, counsel is given to the Sôgmô, and questions are posed to all three officials. The new meetings will have their agendas and their minutes posted in order to provide transparency in the Central People’s Government’s policies, but details may be kept to the minimum in favour of state security.
The weekly agendas and minutes will be posted on Veritum Sandus under the “policy projection” category.
The State Media Cooperative has announced the formation of a new art and design magazine, prole•nounce, and an associated art movement in Sandus, called sandhaus realism after the legendary German art movement Bauhaus.
The magazine began its formation in late April after talks between the three officers of the State of Sandus, and the artistic movement quickly followed. The magazine’s name is a portmanteau of proletarian and pronounce, based off of the Latin word pronuntiare which means to both proclaim, recite, and to share knowledge.
Sandhaus Realism inherits Bauhaus’s effort to maximise utility and to combine art and everyday life.
It rejects the extreme cost of today’s Bauhaus and instead encourages everyday people to redesign serially manufactured things in their daily lives.
It rejects Bauhaus’s mission to rupture the present from the past; instead, Sandhaus Realism recognises that this effort is futile. Recognising that one’s past never abandons us, the movement instead tries to integrate traditional forms of expression into a spirit for a new time.
The magazine will be released in timely issues, and it already has a few articles. Its first issue contains articles based on the conference of the 10th anniversary of the State of Sandus, including the Sôgmô’s, the Party Secretary’s, and a private citizen’s three papers presented at the celebration’s conference. A final article is on the recent LGBTQ+ Pride Week’s poster which was inspired by the artistic movement’s principles.
Anyone who is a worker in the State Media Cooperative may take part in the new magazine. Everything is run by worker’s democracy and consensus. There is no hierarchy in the new media project.
This Spring was a momentous occasion for the State of Sandus. Not only did we celebrate for the first time the Veneralia, but we even marked important events in the history of our micronation like the eighth anniversary of the Foundation of the State of Sandus, the Royal Couple’s first anniversary, and Labour Day. But we even marked the remarkable event of our tenth anniversary in our capital, surrounded by friends and family, with much excitement and joy!
Spring 2019, with all its hard work in our private and public lives, is over. The days are becoming warmer and will now become shorter, and today we turn again to matters of our State.
In the coming season, we have much work left to do in our valiant efforts to uplift our citizens and the world and to alleviate suffering. In Summer 2019, we will have the immense pleasure of sharing our vision with the micronations of the world at MicroCon 2019, where we will be joined once more by other fellow citizens, friends, and family. Our business at this year’s meeting will be nonstop; we will certainly tire but will be refreshed by the vigorous activity of our colleagues and comrades.
Below, we have detailed here some new initiatives. They are, alas, not complete, but are only the beginning of more good things to come. These include new initiatives around language learning, cultural events and holidays, communal events like vacations together and a reading group. Not included are many things: an upcoming furtive royal event, a citizen’s wedding, and a new art and design magazine.
In our small nation, which we have built with our minds and our hands, we are the masters of our own creation—the sovereign masters of our lives! Let us live that way.
Charity Taxes: Coming Soon
Well, the Summer Solstice crept up on us! This section will be updated later.
Sandus celebrates 10 Years
Citizens came from across North America to take part in the tenth anniversary celebrations of our micronation on the weekend of 26 May 2019, Sandus’s Day of Creation. Independence Day festivities began on 23 May when Party Secretary Adam Camillus von Friedeck flew in from the Pacific Northwest, and in earnest on 24 May when a group of citizens and Sandum-affiliated people took part in a celebratory dinner at a local Korean barbecue restaurant. A schedule was shared with participants welcoming them to Ann Arbour, Quer, and times were in Sandum Local Time or UTC-5, not ETD or UTC-4. (Sandus does not observe daylight savings.)
On Saturday 25 May, citizens and friends joined for breakfast and took part in a televised conference, “Sandum Micronationalism in the Age of Moral Cowardism.” The theme of the conference centred on the rise of xenophobia and right-wing populism throughout the world in recent years, and Sandus’s stalwart resistance to that force. The Sôgmô presented a paper, “Love It If We Made It: Sandum Micronationalism as Satire and Resistance,” that discussed our micronation as an artistic and cultural expression of political resistance. The Party Secretary then shared his paper, “Activist Micronationalism and Historical Memory,” on how Sandus curates and responds actively to local historical memory. Finally, Sandus’s newest citizen, Jan DeWitt, who became a citizen in time for the anniversary celebrations, shared his paper, “Caesar & Trump: The Paradigm of Tyrannicide and Moral Cowardism.” Finally, all three fielded questions from the audience and highlighted how Sandus and micronationalism generally has a role to play in civic society as a form of free, artistic speech that overturns the essentialism of nation-states. The entire conference had undertones urging Sandum Realism, seeing that Sandus’s goals are not grandiose but rather communitarian and collective.
Tenth anniversary medals were shared at the conference, in addition to flag pins and postcards produced exclusively for the tenth anniversary.
After the conference, members toured Ann Arbour and visited Zingerman’s Delicatessen, a local famous eatery. This was followed by a tour of Main Street and a trip to the local TeaHaus where citizens enjoyed tea and fine pastries. In the evening, after some free time, citizens reconvened to watch the 1959 movie the Mouse That Roared to add some levity to their day!
The morning of Sandum Independence Day, Sunday 26 May, was spent at the Sôgmô’s Tibetan Buddhist temple in the area. Citizens journeyed there for a morning sadhana service, followed by a short dharma talk and meditation by the resident lama. They heard the story of Marpa Lotsawa (‘the Translator’) who journeyed from Tibet to India in the 11th century to retranslate the Tibetan Buddhist canon, which became known as the “New Translation.” Marpa became one of the lineage founders of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism, a New Translation school. (The Sôgmô is from the Nyingma school, the only Old Translation school.)
Following this, citizens went to Aut Bar, a local LGBTQ+ bar in Ann Arbour, for brunch. Next, they toured the local farmer’s markets and groceries before heading back to the Appartements du Sôgmô to prepare a communal meal shared among themselves and others. During this “Kitchen Agreement” dinner, citizens talked about cultural activities, events, and the importance of sharing food with one another as a sign of friendship, love, and community.
The tenth anniversary activities ended that evening and everyone had a fun time! All citizens who joined in wanted another occasion to meet and to have fellowship with one another again, and even thought of preparing a communal trip sometime in the near future to the Balkans.
Cultural Events, Holidays up Significantly
In the last year, attendance at Sandum cultural events and holidays have been up significantly in the State of Sandus. The Sôgmô has entertained dozens of people at their official residence for a multitude of Sandum holidays, ranging from major State holidays to days of recognition. This emphasis on Sandum cultural events and holidays was called for in the 2017 Philia Plan for the Major Societal Shift, a governmental plan that encouraged cultural development and a reduced reliance on administration and bureaucracy.
The holidays that have been celebrated and commemorated in person include the Armilustrium and Remembrance Day, two of the most important Sandum State holidays. But they also include holidays that are newly celebrated with physical events, like the Day of Mourning for the Annexation of Hawai’i that commemorates the illegal American occupation of the Hawai’ian Islands. Recently, the Sôgmô even celebrated the Veneralia, the festival of the goddess Venus held on 1 April. The holiday has been cast as a Sandum response to the increasingly commercialised Saint Valentine’s Day.
The holidays have had the added benefit of communicating Sandum ideals and values to a wider audience of people beyond those who are micronationalists. And the ideas so integrally a part of our micronation have been received and accepted by more people outside of the micronational community, who have come to recognise and reflect on the communitarian and progressive policies we advance in the State of Sandus.
Sandum Reading and Cultural Group announced
A long-anticipated project is finally here. The Sôgmô has announced today the creation of a Sandum reading and cultural group. The group, which will have its own facilitator, will meet on Google Hangouts to discuss books and other cultural media. Its mission is to be ultimately determined by its members, but its drafted mission is to build an integral community of socially-conscious, civic-minded, and justice-oriented citizens through monthly meetings to discuss media from a diverse background.
Each month will have a specific focus and readings should be manageable for all participants, since many citizens are academics who must read and study much already. Some ideas include Sarah Bakewell’s biography of Montaigne, watching documentaries, or reading US Poet Laureate Joy Harjo’s poetry.
The facilitator position will be advertised in the Council and will be selected by a democratic vote in the Council, or by the Sôgmô’s appointment. The position will be annual and will be salaried at 8¶c.
Sôgmô elected OMF Deputy Secretary of Culture and Francophonie Development
The Sôgmô has been elected unanimously to the position of Deputy General-Secretary in Charge of Culture and of Development of the French-Speaking World in the Organisation of the MicroFrancophonie (OMF). In this stead, the Sôgmô will lead the OMF’s cultural policy and initiatives, and það has hit the ground running by announcing that July will be the OMF’s “Month of Micronational French-Speaking Gastronomy.” More such commemorative months will happen over the course of the year, and það will speak with other members at the upcoming 2019 MicroCon to discuss other possible initiatives.
The Sôgmô is one of a handful of French-speakers in the State of Sandus. Though French is one of three official languages, it is spoken by a minority of citizens, and is of equal proportion to those who know Latin in the country. Sandus is also a founding member of the organisation, which was established in May 2016.
Sandum Language Learning Initiative: Connecting Tutors, Cutting Costs
Language acquisition is important in the State of Sandus, both for political and also social reasons. It is of increasing importance that Sandum citizens learn multiple languages, especially Sandus’s three official languages (English, French, Latin), in a world that is increasingly polarised and globally-connected. Moreover, an internationalist country like Sandus seeks to upset the linguistic hegemony of English as a new koine and lingua franca by encouraging language acquisition. Language learning is not just about connecting people through language and sharing Sandum values: it is also about uplifting Sandum citizens, educating them in new and profound ways, and cultivating their positive social mobility.
In pursuit of these causes, the Sôgmô has announced a new language learning initiative in the State of Sandus, similar to the financial initiative that helps citizen and non-citizen trans people transition. That initiative gives applicants up to $30 to $40 for transition-related materials like chest-binders, clothes, or cosmetics, and it is financed by the Sôgmô personally. To date, close to half a dozen people have taken advantage of the fund.
This new initiative will do something similar by covering up to half of the cost of language-learning textbooks, or up to $50 USD. The new initiative will also help connect citizens to tutors, with preference given to other citizens, who can either teach them a language or help them study. Finally, it will also seek out free tools to encourage language-learning and will seek alternative means to finance language-acquisition, such as encouraging citizens to apply to the Classics microgrant fund Sportula.
As a part of this initiative, the Sôgmô is considering adopting regional languages of unofficial status on the State-level but that are cultural languages relevant to individual provinces. This follows a similar current that has been developing in Sandus lately, to increase provincial cultural identity with symbols and also to breakdown behemoth provinces like Sandus Ulterior, or Further Sandus, into more region-specific provinces, like Kremlum Sandus and Quercus Candida. Provinces, then, will have regionally-relevant cultural languages and languages that are spoken en masse by the region’s population.
Language is an important part of current Sandum policy, too. The Sôgmô has recently begun a project to translate for free other micronations’ mottoes, titles, et cetera into Latin for them. Dismayed by the fake Latin many micronations use to aspire to a higher level of prestige, það begun the project to increase the prestige of micronations in general. To date, about a dozen translations have been made.
Workers receive annual salaries
Sandum workers have received their annual salaries based on their employment in the Central People’s Government and Sandum cooperatives. Receipts will be sent out to them individually from the Sôgmô acting on behalf of CivBanca.
The Sôgmô’s Summer Honours List
Ahead of MicroCon 2019 in Hamilton, Canada, invitations to new members in Sandus’s newest order have been sent out with more on their way, and new commendationes and ovationes will be made for the occasion. And, finally, new members have been made in the Most Honourable Order of the Throne of Sandus, Sandus’s most senior order of honour.
Ovationes and Commendationes
Sandus’s newest style of award and honour is the commendatio, or “commendation.” Based off of the Roman epistolary genre, this honour is comprised of Latin letters patent that are recognitions of specific actions and deeds on behalf of Sandus and larger efforts. They can also be joined with ovationes, or “ovations,” which are short Latin speeches that traditionally end with the phrase “plaudamus igitur…” (“let us applaud therefore…”). These honours are similar to the distinction of “mentioned in dispatches” (MiD) found in other countries.
Today, three people have been recognised with commendationes and one with an ovatio.
King George 2.0 of Slabovia for his work with MicroCon 2019 Chancellor Rankin MacGillivray for his work with MicroCon 2019 Party Secretary Adam Camillus von Friedeckcum ovatione for serving the Party for five years
L’Ordre Annonaire Fraternel du Bol en Bois
Work on the Fraternal Annonary Order of the Wooden Bowl, as the order is known in English, has been slow since a standard translation of the order’s founding ordinance took a while to be formally corrected for good, legalese French. The editing work lasted until late in the Spring. The order’s official business language, after all, is French and the original document used a Medieval French document as its model until this idea was scrapped.
But now work is going ahead before this year’s Chökhor Düchen holiday that marks both the Buddha’s first teaching the Dharma and the order’s official business holiday. The chivalric charitable order is meant to be made up of members who have both a creed related to Sandus’s philosophy and who have been initiated into their religion’s teachings.
The order has three members already, two seigneurs and one chevalière bannerette.
Gaius Soergel Publicola, seigneur et souverain Adam Camillus von Friedeck, seigneuret trésorier Sisenna Melville, chevalière bannerette
Three others have been invited, and eight more are set to be invited soon.
Hatsu Ryuho, former Facilitator of the Council Dominic Desaintes, President-Minister of Saint-Castin Olivier, Emperor of Angyalistan
Invitations have not yet been sent out to chevaliers, but they will be in the next few days.
Honourable Order of Athena Pronoea
The second most prestigious order in Sandus based on precedence automatically gives ranks based on educational achievement. It is the only order in which the Sôgmô does not hold the highest rank despite being the order’s sovereign, and today some new members of the order outrank the Sôgmô.
Jacob Barnet Pharmacologus Σαρκαστικός MΑθΠ – Master’s degree of Science in Medicinal Chemistry Jan DeWitt KΑθΠ – Master’s Degree of Arts in Latin
Oliver Armstrong AΑθΠ – pursuing B.A.
Most Honourable Order of the Throne of Sandus
Each solstice and equinox, the Sôgmô can award membership and new ranks in the Most Honourable Throne of the State of Sandus. Today, það does that with two foreign micronationalists with whom Sandus has become increasingly friendly since 2017, and again with two others—one who has now become a Sandum citizen and his non-citizen-but-affiliated wife.
These four people will now become members of the Most Honourable Throne of Sandus.
Queen Anastasia of Ruritania for her work on MicroCon 2017 King George 2.0 of Slabovia for his friendship and work on MicroCon 2019
Jan DeWitt for his work on constitutional theory and friendship Natalie Ritsema for her self-sufficient and cultural work and friendship
On 13 April 2011, the State Caucus of Sandus, the provisional body that oversaw the transition from Sandus as a colony of the Federal Republic of St.Charlie to a fully-fledged sovereign state with a constitution, enacted the Founding Law of the State of Sandus.
This basic and supreme law of the land established in its ten articles and preamble Sandus’s current socialist constitution and laid the basis for the evolutionary transition from monarchy to a republic. The law lays forth Sandum citizens’ common rights, freedoms, and obligations, as well establishes the basis of Sandus’s economic and social policies. In terms of politics, the Founding Law established the principle that the Sôgmô maintains the legal and political supremacy of the State of Sandus. The law even foresaw the development of our tripartite national philosophy comprised of Buddhism, Socialism, and Sancta (a term that has been defined as pluralism and multiculturalism).
Facilitator Hatsu Ryuho will step down from the position of the Council’s facilitator in the new administrative year that begins 5 January. First elected during the eleventh session of 2016, which ended on 14 November 2016, Hatsu has served as Sandus’s third most powerful politician for more than two years.
He entered the position after the sudden resignation and departure of Bee Rodgers Albina from Sandus in September 2016, and the Sôgmô’s subsequent acting-facilitatorship. He successfully oversaw the passage of the Council’s first two laws which were on both the immigration process and the Sôgmô’s succession. He also acted for his many three-month terms as one of Sandus’s Three Grand State Officers and as one of two constitutional advisers to the Sôgmô. During his two year and one month tenure, he was an advocate for gender equality and representation, as well as LGBTQ+ rights in Sandus. (Hatsu came out in 2018.) Originally the leader from Kumano, Hatsu became a full Sandum citizen, or civis, after his country dissolved on 3 July 2017. (Kumano was Sandus’s first socilivanço country, having become a social country in October 2013.) Originally slated to be an interrex in the upcoming year in the 21 December Solstice Report, that position will now be filled by the incoming facilitator according to law.
The Sôgmô commended Hatsu’s legacy as Sandus’s longest serving facilitator and decision to step down, saying it demonstrated “incredible humility, decency, and apleonexy.” Það added that they hoped that he will continue to be “an active and dedicated presence in Sandus as a private citizen” just as he has been during his term.
Artemis Baca will assume the number three position after recently becoming a full Sandum citizen on 28 December 2018. Her term will be the first to last six months, instead of three. The peaceful transfer of power happened after it was announced that same day that Hatsu Ryuho’s term had lapsed. The incumbent facilitator offered to stand for another term, before Baca offered to run and was endorsed by the out-going facilitator.
Baca’s plans for the new administrative year (the year of Sandus’s 10th anniversary) include bringing new, young energy and enthusiasm to the Council. She wishes to pursue the Party’s current goals and to set up a small committee to field ideas to make them into legislation.
I appreciate Robert’s help and his work for all he has done. I will rely on Robert and other’s wisdom and guidance to give me strength and knowledge.
Artemis Baca on outgoing veteran Facilitator Hatsu Ryuho
The Sôgmô’s Constitution Project has issued the first edition of its literature and graphics on Sandus’s unwritten and republican constitution. The project was planned by the 2016 Philia Plan for the Major Societal Shift, a plan that anticipated the Sôgmô’s departure from Kremlum Sandus for graduate school. Now, a year and four months after þess departure, the project has begun.
The plan explained that the Sôgmô will work “to make an interactive infographic of the structure of the Central People’s Government and of the interconnect web of relations between the constitutional organs of the State of Sandus.” That graphic, the plan continues, should “reconstruct the relationships between the many organs of the State of Sandus, their relative hierarchy, and their powers, duties, and jurisdictions.” The graphic will be made available for all Sandum citizens, applicants for citizenship, and individuals interested in Sandus.
The first graphic in the project is about the general structure of Sandus’s three branches of government, divided into the Citizens’ Party of Sandus, the Central People’s Government, and the Council. It even includes the hypothetical Senate, an emergency body comprised of necessary leaders from each house of Sandum citizens that was planned for in the 2016 Philia Plan for the Major Societal Shift. The body does not exist.
(Note: the Central People’s Government sometimes refers to only the Sôgmô’s branch and also to all three branches, but never to provincial governments.)
Next is the Central People’s Government and its division of powers. All three have some form of legislation in Sandus: the Party (and the Sôgmô) has state planning, the Sôgmô has decrees, and the Council has its decisions (i.e., resolutions) and laws. In turn, these four types of legislation affect the Sôgmô’s branch, as is made clearer with the next slide.
(Economic commands are treated here and in the next slide as specific economic plans.)
The Sandum command economy, with its coöperatives and workers, falls under the direction of the Sôgmô. Both the Sôgmô and the Party can draft and issue plans and economic commands (both derived from plans and from citizens’ individual or collective needs), which then are sent to coöperatives. Commands flow down the chain of command in coöperatives to individual workers or whole work groups who produce a product that goes to the recipient (an individual, collective, or another coöperative if in an economic chain). That recipient directs CivBanca, Sandus’s bank, to send circulatory persumae to the coöperative to redistribute.
The May 2018 law on succession institutes Sandus’s first law on the succession of the Sôgmô. In it, a process begins with the creation of a caucus of five interreges who are the three top-most Sandum politicians and leaders of the three branches of government (the Party Secretary, the Sôgmô, and the Council’s Facilitator) plus two appointed interreges: one from the Sôgmô and another from both the Party Secretary and the Facilitator.
This caucus creates a long list of candidates in the spring of ever fifth year since Sandus’s creation (2019, 2024, and so on). In the summer, the caucus interviews candidates and creates a final short list of three to five candidates, which is sent to the Party Congress in November to review and to select its top two candidates. Both candidates, then, wage campaigns for the Winter Solstice Election, where Sandum citizens with suffrage (i.e., cives and peregrini who meet the requirement) elect the Heir elected.
The Office of the Sôgmô, which is the top most office of the Central People’s Government, is divided into three major categories: functionary (or ministerial) government, provincial governments, and cooperatives. This slide shows what bodies do exist alongside the three hypothetical divisions.
In the functionary side of the CPG exist one ministry (Diplomatic Affairs), one independent bureau (the Treasury) with its one division (CivBanca), and a separate body of individual chargé(e)s d’affaires (i.e., bureaucrats with specific charges and duties).
There are four provinces in provincial government. They are technically not part of the Central People’s Government but are under the Office of the Sôgmô since Sandus is a unitary state. There are, however, no praetors—either elected or appointed by the Sôgmô.
At the bottom is the “economic branch” of Sandus’s government, since Sandus has a Socialist command economy. Sandus has three economic coöperatives (Tellus Agrarian, Erganê Artisanal, and State Media Coöperatives) as well as one cultural/religious coöperative (the Collegium Sacerdotum, or the “College of Priests”). Only the Collegium Sacerdotum has internal subdivisons with two work groups (known in the college as “sodalities”) and a chain of command of workers (the Sacer Flamen, the major Flamines like the Bishop of the church, and individual members or sacerdotes).
The final slide of the project’s first edition is a rehashing of two appendices of the Sandum system of nobility. In the future, when more entitled and enholden barons and baronets exist, the project will include those titles and all the different decorations in the State of Sandus
The Sôgmô has released þess holiday message early on Christmas eve and in text, rather than the custom of sending a video in the early morning of 25 December. The message cites Royal Family events on the eve of Christmas and the Dies Natalis Solis Invicti as the cause for the break from tradition.
In the message, það talks about Jesus’s message and how Christians’ views are like those associated with all Sandum citizens, and mentions a story from þess recent nyungné, a Tibetan Buddhist fasting ritual, about how Jesus’s story is accessible to people across a variety of different boundaries. Það talks about how this season is one meant for family, both born and chosen families, and marks how important the New Gregorian Year will be as we mark the 10th anniversary of the Creation of Sandus.